Papilloma: causes, varieties

Human papillomavirus

Papilloma denotes benign formations, the spread of which can occur both on the surface of the skin and on the mucous membranes. Any type of papilloma is provoked by the penetration of the virus into the human body, but it may take more than a year to notice the first manifestations from the moment of infection.

Human papilloma

There can be several reasons for papillomas to appear, but the main route to infection is sexual contact. In addition, the virus can be transmitted through kissing, household items, and shaking hands. In the event of injuries to the skin or mucous membrane surface, the pathogen easily penetrates the body, for example swimming pools, saunas and baths are dangerous sources.

After infection, the incubation period lasts about 3 months while there are no symptoms - at this stage it is difficult to diagnose the disease.

The main factors that can trigger the onset of the disease include:

  • decreased immune system;
  • Smoking;
  • promiscuous sexual intercourse;
  • stressful situations;
  • Alcohol abuse;
  • early start of sexual activity;
  • violation of metabolic processes;
  • Diseases of the digestive tract, particularly ulcers and gastritis;
  • gynecological diseases: trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, thrush, ureaplasmosis;
  • frequent visits to baths, saunas and swimming pools;
  • Having sex with an infected human papillomavirus.

Often times, hormonal drugs, including birth control pills, contributed to changes in hormone levels, which could serve as one of the factors provoking the disease.

Common symptoms

This pathological process has no symptoms as such - it all depends on the type and localization of the formations. One of the signs of HPV is the appearance of warts or genital warts on the skin. Such signs cannot be ignored, since HPV is part of oncogenic diseases.

In addition to skin lesions, other signs may sometimes appear:

  • Peeling the skin;
  • Itching;
  • Redness of the skin area;
  • Tingle;
  • Localization complaints.

The appearing formations can differ from the skin color by several tones. In most cases, papillomas do not cause physical discomfort, but can still be morally and aesthetically uncomfortable.

Varieties of papillomas

Papillomas are divided into several types:

  • plantar;
  • just;
  • simple;
  • thread-like;
  • prickly.

Flat papillomas

Flat papillomas are formations that protrude only 1-2 mm above the skin. The shape of flat papillomas can be oval, rounded, and most often elongated. The main place of localization of this type of formation is the skin of the face, the upper part of the chest, the lip area and the external genitals. In women, flat papillomas can be diagnosed with a pelvic examination of the cervix.

If the formations are too close together, they tend to merge together, causing them to become quite noticeable. The color of such formations can be a little darker than the skin tone, or not at all different.


This type of papilloma is often mistaken for calluses, but there are still several symptoms that suggest the presence of plantar papillomas. These include:

  1. There is no pattern on the damaged skin. Corn usually has a smooth surface and complexion.
  2. There is pain when the shoes press on the papilloma.
  3. Outwardly, the papilloma is characterized by a vulgar education.

Plantar papillomas are very often observed in young children, this type is suitable for self-destruction. After the appearance of the first nodule, small vesicles form, which later become papillomas, this formation process is known as mosaic papillomatosis.


Simple condylomas are divided into ordinary and vulgar. This type occurs when infected with HPV types 26-29, 41, 36, and 77. Vulgar papillomas are benign formations and most often have their own manifestation. The precursors of the appearance of such formations are a slight tingling and burning sensation in a certain area of the skin, then a small round nodule appears in this place. Then the surface of the formation begins to peel off, the color takes on darker shades. Simple papillomas can be 1 to 10 mm in size.

Most often, this type of formation is localized on the back of the palms of the hands, between the fingers, and on the fingers themselves. Very often, children are diagnosed with simple papillomas in the knee area, this arrangement is due to the fact that at a young age children move directly on the knees, as a result of which cracks form, through which an infection occurs.


Genital warts are papillary formations, the location of which can appear in a group or separately. As they grow, these genital warts often lend themselves to merging, resulting in a comb-like surface. The color of the pointed formations must not differ in any way from the skin tone and also have a bright pink color.

Genital warts occur as a result of HPV infection that is transmitted through sexual contact. Therefore, the localization of such formations occurs most often in the perineum, genitals, anus and groin. When men are infected with HPV, the genital organs in the urethra and the penis itself are affected; in women, the cervix and vagina can be affected.

Pointed papillomas are characterized by rapid growth, while fusion and damage to healthy areas of the skin can occur within a few days. Relapses are common after such treatment. When diagnosing an illness, infections such as chlamydia and mycoplasmosis can be detected in parallel.


Filiform warts are localized in areas of thin skin and are an elongated and elongated formation. This type of papilloma is caused by HPV types 2 and 7. At the beginning of the formation of the formation, a small lump appears on the skin, which after a while will stretch and hang down.

Filiform papillomas are most common in men and women over 40 years of age. Their localization occurs in the groin and armpit region, on the neck and on the upper eyelids. Such formations are very thin, so they are often injured by movement or clothing.


Papillomas can appear on absolutely any part of the skin, but most of the discomfort is in the formations that appear on the face, as well as in places exposed to heavy friction from hard clothing. Depending on the structure of the skin and the properties of the virus, there are several areas of the body where the appearance of formations occurs most often:

  • on the feet;
  • the surface of the skin of the face, hands, abdomen, back, neck area;
  • internal organs: intestines, esophagus, stomach, bladder;
  • Genitals;
  • In the body folds: Abdominal folds if you are overweight, in the armpits, under the mammary gland, in the groin.

Sometimes papillomas are found on the lining of the mouth, in the ducts of the chest and internal genital organs. If growths appear in the throat, it may cause respiratory failure due to the narrowing of the lumen of the air duct.

Papilloma in the throat

The appearance of papilloma on the mucous membrane of the throat is a pathological process that has no symptoms. It is very rare for the patient to experience any discomfort or any signs. However, if the formations grow, the following symptoms may appear:

  • unpleasant and painful sensations in the throat;
  • a feeling of being in the throat of a foreign object;
  • suppressed swallowing, both solid and liquid foods.

As the infection progresses, papillomas fill an increasing area in the throat, which can sometimes cause voice changes and shortness of breath.

The reasons for the appearance of genital warts in the throat can be frequent smoking, infectious diseases in childhood, frequent changes of sexual partners and chronic diseases. Frequent visits to public places (swimming pools and baths) and decreased immunity can also be reasons for the development of an infection.

Treatment of genital warts of such a localization can be carried out medically with the use of antiviral and vitamin preparations. The presence of papillomas in the mouth requires surgical treatment as it can cause the infection to spread throughout the body.

Human papillomavirus in women

HPV in women can be localized on the breast, external and internal genitals. Papillomas on the cervix are warty formations with indistinct edges. This pathological process can be considered an oncogenic factor, and if not treated in a timely manner, cervical cancer can develop.

The main reasons for the appearance of genital warts on the cervix are:

  • frequent use of drugs and alcohol;
  • Non-compliance with hygiene rules;
  • reduced immunity;
  • Have sex with someone who is infected with HPV.

In addition, infection can occur in a public place, as well as during childbirth from mother to child.

Symptoms include enlarged lymph nodes, burning sensation in the vulva, and uncharacteristic green or brown discharge, sometimes accompanied by an unpleasant odor.

For treatment, doctors use local and drug therapy. Papillomas on the genitals can be localized not only in women, but also in men, the only difference is that HPV in men is rarely of an oncogenic nature.

Papilloma of the chest

A breast papilloma develops in the milk duct. When these pathological processes occur, a woman may notice the following signs:

  • Burning and itching;
  • the appearance of redness on the nipple;
  • brown or green discharge may appear from the nipple;
  • when you press, you may feel chest pain and you may experience spotting.

Intraductal warts do not belong to malignant formations, but with pathological changes and untimely treatment, the disease can take a malignant form, which sometimes becomes the cause of the development of breast cancer.

Such a formation is a nipple-shaped process, the color of which is significantly different from the skin tone. The main factors that can affect the development of a breast papilloma are:

  • reduced immune system;
  • the presence of infectious diseases;
  • Ovarian disorder;
  • Obesity, disturbed metabolic processes;
  • Cancellation.

Intraductal papillomas are prone to women with bad habits, frequently changing sexual partners, and nulliparous. Treatment of the papilloma is done only through surgery, as this condition is considered precancerous and drug treatment is not appropriate. The surgical treatment does not leave any highly visible scars on the surface of the chest. There are no preventive measures against such a disease, so it is necessary to be examined by a gynecologist and mammologist as often as possible, at least 2 times a year.

Papilloma on the tongue

Condylomas in the tongue are papilla formations up to several centimeters. The main causes of infection are household items and also transmission through close contact with an HPV patient. Such localization of papillomas can appear even in children, as they often pull objects and toys into their mouths, while most often the baby has decreased immunity.

Such localization of papilloma requires surgical treatment, after which antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs are prescribed.

Papilloma treatment

The following methods are used to treat areas of skin affected by warts:

  1. Laser radiation is one of the most popular methods for removing formations and is safe for women to use during pregnancy.
  2. High-frequency radiation or electrocautery are used in diathermocoagulation.
  3. Use of radio waves for coagulation. This method involves removing papillomas with a radio wave knife.
  4. Cryodestruction - the removal of formations occurs due to their freezing with liquid nitrogen.
  5. Surgical - Papillomas are removed with a scalpel, which allows you to cut out a large area of the lesion.

To cure the disease, it is not enough to eliminate the source of the infection; it requires an integrated approach that includes antiviral agents and drugs to strengthen the immune system.

Drugs used to fight viruses will help prevent relapse and reduce the risk of cancer. The use of immunomodulators, minerals, and vitamins will complement HPV treatment. Modern drugs cannot completely destroy the virus in the body, but they can stop the disease from developing and put it into a "dormant" state.

It is important to remember that treatment should only be carried out by a qualified doctor, self-administration of drugs is strictly prohibited.

Human papillomavirus: treatment

Most commonly, HPV is treated surgically using a variety of techniques. After examining the patient, the doctor will prescribe a method of removal, which depends on the location of the formation, the presence of a leg, its number and size. At the same time, the patient is prescribed a number of drugs:

  • to improve immunity;
  • Vitamins;
  • antiviral drugs.

Treatment with drugs can be repeated based on test results. The goal of drug therapy is to stop HPV activity.

HPV treatment in women

There is no specific tactic for treating papillomas in women. Disposal of formations should be carried out only under the supervision of a specialist, who will give accompanying recommendations on further treatment and methods of prevention. It is very rare for this pathological process to go away on its own and not return. Sometimes, even with an integrated approach, it is not possible to fully recover from this disease. Papillomas are characterized by frequent relapses, so doctors recommend such patients to conduct antiviral therapy several times a year.

Removal of papillomas with a laser

One of the most popular and safe ways to remove genital warts is by using a laser. During the procedure, the doctor uses a laser to act on the surface of the tumor and burn it. With this method, not only can the affected skin surface be destroyed, but bleeding can also be prevented. After using the laser, patients do not experience any side effects or complications, and most importantly, no scars remain on the body.

With a laser it is possible to remove an infected surface of any depth, therapy allows you to get rid of single and confluent papillomas instantly. This method is indicated when diagnosing papillomatosis of the cervix. After the procedure, the rehabilitation time can be about a month.


There are no specific preventive measures for HPV, but some measures can help reduce the risk of the disease developing again. First of all, you need to follow the rules of personal hygiene, if there are cuts, treat them in a timely manner. You are only allowed to use your own personal hygiene items: shoes, towel, combs, manicure equipment, etc. Use condoms during sexual intercourse, especially if you are dealing with untested sexual partners. After that, it is necessary to carefully perform the toilet of the external genital organs.