What is HPV?
Genital HPV infection is a infection, sexually transmitted diseases (STI). The causative agent of the HPV infection human papilloma virus (HPV). Virus Papillomavirus is a group of viruses that contains about 100 different species. More than 30 types of HPV are transmitted sexually, infecting the genitals and the Anus of women and men.
Most of the infected unaware of their disease, have no clinical manifestations, and, in addition, may recover spontaneously.
Part of this virus the virus "high carcinogenic risk", they can cause precancerous lesions of the genital organs. Studies in recent years have confirmed the important role of HPV in development of cervical cancer. HPV-high-risk-also play a role in the development of cancer of the Vulva, the Vagina in women and cancer of the Penis in men. Among the viruses with a high risk 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 68, 69 types of these types of HPV are responsible for 95-98% of cases of cervical cancer. They cause abnormal growth of cells, which is usually flat and nearly invisible in the normal examination compared to benign warts, the virus low risk – 6, 11 types. Benign warts of the anogenital ' nye appear after 2 – 6 months after infection. To the development or precancerous cancerous changes in connection with the carriage of high-risk HPV over the years, and often spontaneous healing of HPV.
The infection is most common in the ages of 15 and 40 and affects equally men and women. In the 50 years of life, approximately 80 percent of women acquire HPV infection.
About 50-75% of sexually active people infected with HPV during their lifetime, and in most cases, the infection is not caused by disease, and spontaneously healed.
About 90% of people infected with HIV also have HPV infection.
How is HPV
Papilloma virus, infectious genital area, transmitted by sexual contact. Most of the infected have no visible symptoms of the disease, and therefore a carrier of HPV were unaware of their infection and can infect their sexual partners. Sometimes infected mother to the newborn may be infected during birth. This can lead to a so-called laryngeal papillomatosis is considered a newborn.
Symptoms of the infection
Most of the infected persons are not aware of it. HPV often causes no symptoms on the skin and the mucous membranes. In the case of a part of the people of warts to occur or precancerous changes in the cervix, Vulva, anal area or Penis develop genital. Very rarely, these changes go directly into the cancer. From infection to development of severe dysplasia, on average, 20 years. Most of the women spontaneously healed within 9 – 15 months from the Moment of infection. The most important Manifestation of HPV infection – genital warts, or Condylomata acuminata (caused by HPV type 6 and 11) - soft warty education on a short thin stalk, reminding a cauliflower or cockscomb with the different arrangement (the head of the Penis, Penis, small and large labia, vagina, cervix, around the Anus). Condylomata acuminata occur after 2 to 6 months after infection. Visible genital warts, the investigation found.
Diagnosis of the infection
Diagnosis of genital warts is made on the basis of the inspection. Diagnosis of HPV high carcinogenic risk and the associated changes, the more difficult task. In the basis of the diagnosis of precancerous conditions of the cervix for many cytological smear (smear under the microscope). But he has a number of significant shortcomings – complexity, low sensitivity and high frequency undefined results. The FDA Committee (Committee for medicinal products and food authority) approved study HPV by Polymerase chain reaction - PCR, which can detect 13 high-risk HPV types. PCR for HPV has a high sensitivity, is simple in execution. Common use of cytological examination and PCR testing to increase the efficiency of diagnosis, the sensitivity is increased, up to 99 – 100%. It is important that the identification of high-risk HPV is done long before the occurrence of precancerous changes of the mucous membranes.
PCR testing is recommended in high-risk HPV:
- - As the primary method to complement Cytology for women 30 years and older.
- - Approval for dubious results of cytological examination.
- Patients, the treatment due to dysplasia or cancer.
- - In the first Phase of the diagnostics for countries in which a poorly organized Screening program for infection with the human papilloma virus.
- Survey for men.
Can I cure this disease?
Diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, should in the conditions of specialized clinic – KVD, all the necessary Tools for a quick and accurate diagnosis.
Specific drugs against HPV on the present day. There are many methods for the removal of warts, but the disease can return because the Virus stays in the body of the people. Relapses in 25% of cases within 3 months after the treatment. In the treatment of warts inspection is required for sex partners. But the vast majority of the sexual partners of HPV infected and not simply the visible manifestations of the disease.
Treatment of precancerous diseases consists in the use of chemical, physical, and other methods, with the aim of, the structure of the affected mucous membranes, and the use of stimulating medication the immune system. In addition, an annual cytological examination and determination of the HPV PCR must.
What is the connection between HPV and cervical cancer?
Just the facts:
- Human papilloma virus high-risk are the main cause of cervical cancer.
- In cases of severe dysplasia (precancer) and cancer of the cervix HPV is the cases in almost 100%.
- The identification of HPV associated with a 250-fold increased risk of development of severe dysplasia.
- Cervical cancer occupies the 1. Place among the causes of female mortality in developing countries.
- Cervical cancer is the 2nd place after breast cancer among women in the world – 250 thousand deaths per year.
- In Russia every year on the 12th of 300 women with cervical cancer and more than 6 thousand patients die every year.
- In the last 10 years, the average age of the patients decreased from 58 to 55 years.
- In women up to 29 years of age, the incidence increased in 2 times.
- High-risk HPV cervical cancer cause in 100% of cases, cancer of the anus – 90%, cancer of the Vagina and Vulva – 40%, cancer of the Penis – 40% oropharyngeal cancer-12% of the cases.
- American society, cancer is projected for the year 2004, approximately 10 520 women develop aggressive cervical cancer, and about 3 900 women will die of the disease. The majority of women with aggressive cervical cancer, not received the correct examination to HPV infection.
Prevention of infections
The safest way to avoid sexual HPV infection is to refrain from any sexual contact with another individual can.
Permanent sexual relationship with the permanent sexual partner is not a 100% guarantee against infection with HPV. It is difficult to diagnose without specific Tests, the is infected, whether or not in the present time of the sexual Partner.
Condoms made of Latex is reduced in the case of correct application the risk of transmission of infection.
All of the symptoms, such as pain or discomfort when urinating, unusual skin rashes, secretions are a Signal for the cessation of sexual contacts, and immediate investigation of conditions in a specialized clinic. If a patient is STI discovered, immediately notify their Sex partners, they also made a full investigation and appropriate treatment. This reduces to prevent the risk of development of serious complications and the possibility of reinfection.