Human Papillomavirus (HPV) tract is the most common viral infection genital.
HPV is a group of viruses that is extremely widespread in the world. There are more than 190 types of this Virus, of which at least 13 lead to the development of cancer (these are called high-risk types). Human Papilloma Virus is mainly through sexual contact, and most people have sex life infected to you shortly after the start. Two HPV types (16 and 18) cause 70% of all cases of cervical cancer (CC) and precancerous diseases of the cervix.
The probability to be ill
Human Papilloma Virus is mainly through sexual contact, and most people have sex life infected to you shortly after the start. But for the transmission of the Virus is not necessary for penetrative Sex. Physical Genital contact is well set through the transmission of HPV infection. Groups the risk of infection with HPV are children and young people 15-18 years.
Cervical cancer develops in the sequence of acquired communicable infection with certain HPV types. Risk factors for CC: the first sexual intercourse at an early age; many sexual partners; immunosuppression (e.g., HIV-infected people are is an increased risk of infection with HPV and a wider range of HPV types).
Symptoms and the character of the durchflieens of the disease
Most HPV infections do not lead to symptoms or diseases, and are even (about 90% disappear within 2 years). The sustainable infection with certain HPV types (most often types 16 and 18) can lead to the development of precancerous diseases. Without treatment, these conditions, cervical cancer can develop. Today, cervical cancer is the most common disease associated with the human papilloma virus is. Cervical cancer is the fourth among the most common types of cancer in women and the seventh overall, an estimated 528 was 000 new cases in the world in the year 2012.
The symptoms of CC appear in the rule, only in an advanced stage of the cancer and may include the following:
- Irregular, mežmenstrual'nye (in the period of time between menstrual periods) or abnormal vaginal bleeding after intercourse;
- Pain in the back, the legs or in the pelvic area;
- Fatigue, Weight Loss, Loss Of Appetite;
- Unpleasant sensations in the vagina or vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor;
- A swollen leg.
At later stages, may appear more severe symptoms.
HPV infection is also involved in 20-90% of cases, squamous cell carcinoma of the Anus, throat, Vulva, Vagina, and Penis. It is estimated that up to 90% of all cases of Anal cancer by HPV-16 and HPV-18 as well as 40% of cases of cancer of the Vulva, which is associated mostly with older women, with HPV-16.
HPV infection, due to the Low-risk types cause warts of the anogenital'nye men and women (Condylomata acuminata or venereal warts). The average time between the infection of HPV types 6 or 11 and the development of venereal warts is 11-12 months for males and 5-6 months for young women 16. Warts anogenital'nye hardly treatable.
HPV-6 and HPV-11 can cause a rare condition known as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP), where warts formed in the larynx or other parts of the respiratory tract. WRP occurs mainly in children under 5 years of age (Juvenile WRP), or in the case of persons in the third of the Top TEN living (adult WRP). In rare cases, women with genital HPV infection can transmit the Virus to the Baby during birth. Untreated WRP, this paths a serious Problem because of the obstruction of the breath.
Complications after a disease
Found that the CC in 100% of cases, due to the oncogenic types of human Papilloma Virus (HPV). In women with normal immune system cervical cancer is developing for 15-20 years. In women with a weakened immune system, e.g. HIV infection, if left untreated, its development may be only 5-10 years. Despite the limited data on anogenital cancers, except cervical cancer, a growing number of actual data Virus cancer of the Anus, Vulva, Vagina and Penis, shows the connection of the human Papilloma. And even though these cancers are less widespread than CC, and their connection with HPV makes them potentially capable of prevention by the use of the same strategies of primary prevention, as well as for cervical cancer.
HPV-types, not to cause cancer (especially types 6 and 11) cause genital warts and respiratory papillomatosis (a disease in which tumors because of the nose and mouth into the lungs) grow in the respiratory tract. And although these conditions lead very rarely to the death, they can often lead to the disease. Genital warts are common and very infectious.
A high level of global mortality from cervical cancer (52%) by the Virus of the papilloms of the people. In 2012, approximately 270 000 women died from CC, where more than 85% of these deaths occurred in low-and middle-income.
Screening for CC — examination on pre-cancerous lesions and cancer in women who are not the symptoms and feel perfectly healthy. If the Screening shows precancerous pathological conditions, you can easily treat and, therefore, the development of prevent cancer. Screening can also heal reveal cancer at an early stage with high probability.
In view of the fact that pre-cancerous lesions develop in the course of the years, any woman over the age of 30-49 years is recommended, which Screening at least once in life, better and more often. Screening is effective for reducing the mortality of cervical cancer only in the case of the participation of a significant number of women.
Currently 3 different types of screening are:
- The conventional Pap Test (Pap) and liquid Cytology (LBC);
- Visual inspection with the aid of acetic acid;
- Testing for high-risk HPV types.
In developed countries, there are programmes which treat to offer women the chances for the existence of the screenings that detect most precancerous stages, when you can easily. Early treatment of human papilloma virus prevents up to 80% of the cases, the development of CC in these countries.
In developing countries, limited access to effective Screening means that the disease often shows itself only in the late stage when symptoms develop. In addition, the treatment of the disease at such later stages, is proving to be inefficient and leads to high mortality rates of CC in these countries.
The effectiveness of the vaccination
Results of clinical studies suggest that the two vaccines exist that are safe and very effective in preventing infections with HPV 16 and 18. Both vaccines are more effective if the vaccine is before exposure to human Papillomavirus. It is preferred, therefore, vaccination before the first sexual contact. Vaccines do not cure HPV infection with HPV or a related disease (such as cancer).
In some countries, the vaccination of boys against human papilloma virus introduced, in view of the fact that it contributes to the prevention of Herpes, cancer both in men and women, and one of the available vaccines can also warts development of genital prevent in both men and women. In addition, the vaccination of boys is used to prevent the circulation of HPV in the population of adolescents and young adults. The who recommends vaccination of girls aged 9-13 years, because it is most effective in terms of cost, public health measure against cervical cancer.
HPV-vaccination Screening replaced on cervical cancer. In countries where HPV vaccine has been introduced, may also be necessary, the development of Screening programs. Until the end of the year 2013, a vaccine against human papilloma virus has been in 55 countries by the who.
Modern mathematical models show that the density of girls 12-13 years with a full course of primary immunization (3 doses) vaccine against HPV infections that can reduce the risks to the development of cervical cancer are assumed to be 63%, intraepithelial neoplasia of the third degree (a precancerous condition) – 51%, cytological abnormalities in age cohorts up to 30 years – 27%.
There are currently two vaccines against 16 and 18 types of human Papillomavirus, which is at least 70% of cancers of the cervix. These vaccines can also be used to ensure that some Cross-protection from other, rarer types of HPV, the CC. One of these vaccines also protects against HPV types 6 and 11 that cause warts anogenital'nye.
Development and registration of vaccines against HPV infection-assessed the possibility of primary prevention of CC.
The last epidemic
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women — an estimated 530 000 new cases, about 270 000 patients die.
The incidence keeps a tendency to growth.
The probability of the disease CC each woman, on average, in the course of life is 0.53%.
Historical information and interesting facts
In the mid-seventies of the twentieth century, scientists Harold zur Hausen discovered that women infected with the cancer of the cervix, consistent with human Papilloma Virus. In 1983, he found a papilloma virus DNA, in biopsies of cervical cancer, and this event can be called the discovery of magnetic Virus HPV-16 oncogene In 2008, the Nobel Committee awarded the Nobel prize for physiology or medicine Harald zur Hausen for the discovery that Papilloma Virus can cause cervical cancer.