Human Papillomavirus (HPV) – an extremely widespread infection is sexually transmitted.
Feature of this infection is that it does not manifest in the course of the years, but in the end, lead to the development of benign (papilloma) or malignant (cancer of the cervix) disorders of the sex organs.
Types of human Papilloma Virus
There are more than 100 types of HPV. Types — a kind of "sub-species" of the Virus differ. Types with the numbers that are assigned to them during the opening.
The group of High oncogenic risk of 14 types: 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, 68 (these types are relevant for the development of cervical cancer).
Moreover, known types of Low oncogenic risk (mainly 6 and 11). They lead to the formation of warts, anogenital (ostrokonechnih kondilom, the papillomas). Papilloma found on the mucous membrane of the Vulva, the Vagina, in the perianal Region, on the skin of the genital organs. They are almost never malignant, however, lead to significant cosmetic defects in the genital area. Warts on other parts of the body (hands, feet, face) also can be called this type of Virus have a different origin can share but. In later articles, we will discuss separately the types of HPV "High risk" and "Low risk".
Infection with the human Papilloma Virus
The Virus is transmitted mainly through sexual contact. Sooner or later, HPV infected almost all of the women: up to 90% of sexually active women are faced with this infection in the course of life.
But there's good news: most of the infected (approximately 90%) HPV get rid of without medical intervention within two years.
This is the normal course of an infection by HPV, in the human body. This is enough time, the human immune system to completely got rid of the Virus. In such a Situation, HPV does not bring any harm to the body. That is, when detected was HPV for a while, but not now, this is completely normal!
Note that the immune system works in different people with "different speeds". In this regard, the speed of elimination of HPV at different sexual partners. It is therefore possible, if one of the partners is discovered to HPV, and the other is not.
Most people are infected with HPV shortly after the onset of sexual life, and many of them never learn that HPV infected. Proof of immunity to the infection is not formed, so that may be a re-infection with the same Virus as that already has a session, and other types of the Virus.
HPV "high-risk" is dangerous because it can lead to the development of cervical cancer and some other types of cancer. Other problems HPV "high-risk" is not caused. HPV leads to the development of inflammation on the mucous membrane of the Vagina/cervix, disorders of the menstrual cycle, or infertility.
HPV has understand no influence on the ability to and a pregnancy. Child HPV "high-risk" non-transfer during pregnancy and during the birth. Diagnosis of human Papilloma Virus
Donations analysis on HPV of High oncogenic risk of up to 25 years of practically meaningless (except for those women, the early sexually active (up to 18 years of age)), since there is a very good Chance of the Virus to discover, the soon find themselves way out of the body.
After 25 – 30 years, the analysis makes sense:
- together with the analysis of the Cytology (PAP Test). And if there are changes in the PAP Test and HPV "High risk", what this Situation requires special attention;
- Long-term persistence of HPV "high - risk" in the absence of cytological changes also requires attention. In the last period proved that the sensitivity of HPV testing in the prevention of cervical cancer is higher than the sensitivity of the cytological investigations, the admitted in connection with the Definition of HPV (without Cytology) as an independent research for the prevention of cervical cancer in the United States. But in Russia, an annual cytological testing is recommended, therefore, the combination of these two studies, it seems to make sense;
- after treatment of dysplasia/precancerous conditions/cervical cancer (not HPV in the analysis after the treatment is almost always a note on the successful treatment). For the study, you must vagina swab from the cervical canal (maybe research and Material, but in the context of screening, it is recommended that the receipt of the material carefully from the neck of the womb).
The analysis must be passed:
- 1 time a year (if HPV "was discovered high risk" in the past, and the analysis results together with a in cytological's investigation);
- 1 time in 5 years, if the previous analysis was negative.
The HPV Low oncogenic risk no need to practically never. If papillomas are not, then this analysis is not useful, in principle, (a carrier of the Virus is possible, the treatment of the Virus, so what to do with the result of the analysis, is unknown).
If the papillomas have, then:
- most of the time you are due to HPV;
- remove need, regardless of we find a types 6/11 or not;
- if it smears, then directly with papillomas and not from the vagina/the neck of the womb.
There are Tests for the detection of different HPV types. If you are involved at regular intervals in the analyses on HPV, make sure the types in the analysis. Some laboratories make the research only the type 16 and 18, other – on all the species. It is also possible to pass to analysis, the is all 14 types of "high risk" quantitative Format to show. Quantitative properties are important for predicting the likelihood of developing precancer and cancer of the cervix. Apply these Tests in the context of the prevention of cervical cancer, but not as an independent Test. The analysis on HPV without the results of the Cytology (PAP Test) is usually not possible to make statements about the health condition of the patient.
There is no such analysis to determine the "going away", whether or not the Virus in a given patient or no.
The treatment of human Papillomavirus
There are non-pharmacological treatment of HPV. There are methods of treatment of diseases, caused by HPV (Papilloma, dysplasia, a precancerous condition, cancer of the cervix). This treatment should be carried out with the application of surgical techniques (cryocoagulation, Laser, Radio knife).
No "immune stimulants" are not relevant for the treatment of HPV, and should not be used. None of the known medications failed adequate trials showing their efficacy and safety. Neither in some protocols/Standards/recommendations these drugs are not included. The presence or absence of "Erosion", cervical cancer has no influence on the tactics of treatment of HPV.
If the patient does not have any complaints and also no papillomas/changes in the cervix during the colposcopy and according to the PAP — Test, no curative treatments are required.
You just have to the recapture analysis, 1 time in the year, and monitor cervical cancer (annual PAP — Test, colposcopy). The majority of the patient Virus "go away" from the body itself. And if it's not leaves, it is not necessarily that it leads to the development of cervical cancer, but control is necessary. The treatment of the sexual partner is not necessary (except, if in the case of two partners a papilloma in reproductive organs).
Prevention of infection by the human Papillomavirus
Vaccines developed for the protection of 16 and 18 HPV types (one of the vaccines protects also against types 6 and 11). HPV types 16 and 18, "answer" for 70% of cases of cervical cancer, but because of the protection in front of you is so important. Routine vaccination is in 45 countries around the world. The condom (offers no 100% protection).