Papillomas are benign papillary formations on the surface of the skin and mucous membranes. The cause is the human papillomavirus (HPV), which infects most of the world's population. Growths can appear on any part of the body, including intimate areas and internal organs.
What causes papillomas?
The disease is transmitted sexually in 50% of cases, but it does not manifest itself in any way for a long time. Clinical symptoms are observed with a weakening of the body's immune defense caused by colds, inflammatory and associated chronic diseases of the internal organs.
Papillomas on the body most often appear in adolescence, which coincides with the onset of sexual activity. In young people, the reason may be a frequent change of sexual partners, anal sex. In intimate areas, growths usually form within 1–2 months of an unprotected act.
Papillomas are much more common in women than in men. Benign formations can appear in the anogenital area and on the mucous membranes of the vagina, the cervix. This often becomes the cause of the appearance of cancer in the reproductive organs. Because of weak immunity, young children are prone to HPV infection. The virus is transmitted from infected parents through close household contact.
Obese patients often ask a dermatologist the question: why do papillomas appear on the body? Signs of the disease are particularly often diagnosed in overweight people. The reason are metabolic disorders in the body. The growths are mainly localized in the folds of the skin of the armpits, groin, under the mammary glands, on the neck, eyelids and face.
Why do papillomas appear on the body, where do they come from?
After entering the blood, the papillomavirus begins to actively multiply and affect the upper layers of the skin. If the immunity is strong enough, then the external manifestation of the infection can not be observed for a long time. However, if favorable conditions are created, then pathological proliferation of epithelial cells occurs.
The incubation period is a maximum of 3 months, but in some cases the latent course of the disease lasts up to 2 years. The provocative causes of the appearance of papillomas in the body are flu, poisoning, severe stress, acute inflammatory diseases, pregnancy and adolescence.
The main ways of HPV infection:
- From a sick mother to a child on the way through the birth canal. This happens when a woman has papillomas in intimate places. The pathogen can also get to the baby in breast milk.
- Sexually, the disease is transmitted from an infected partner to a healthy one. Reduce the risk of using a condom. However, when localizing growths in the perineum or anus, contraception is ineffective.
- The path of infection in the household takes place via a shared towel, hygiene article. This is how the virus enters the child's body.
- Self-infection is observed when a benign formation is damaged by a razor or tight clothing. The growths appear in larger numbers in other places.
Types and external signs of papillomas
Depending on the type of pathogen, there are more than a hundred ways of manifesting the virus:
- Genital warts genitaloccur on the external genitals, in the anus, perineum in men and women. They have a peculiar shape that is reminiscent of a rooster comb or cauliflower. Formations are diverse, cause itching and discomfort. In rare cases, anogenital warts are localized on the mucous membranes of the mouth, tongue and lips.
- Simple wartshave a rounded shape, most often they affect the limbs. Usually there are a lot of papillomas, the rash lasts 6-8 months, then it can go away on its own without treatment.
- Flat or juvenile wartsoccur in adolescents during puberty on the background of hormonal changes in the body. Usually such papillomas are localized from behind on the face, neck, fingers and toes. The growths are flat, light pink or beige, painless.
- Filiform warts or acrochords- These are formations with an elongated shape of light pink or brownish color. Most often in women, they occur under the mammary glands, neck, eyelids, face and groin, and armpits.
- Plantar wartslocalized on the soles of the feet and the inside of the hands. The growths cause itching and discomfort when walking. Such a papilloma looks like a rounded formation, similar to a corn. In the middle - black dots on the edges - a roll of keratinized skin.
- Oncogenic papipilloma virusesHumans cause cancer of the larynx and reproductive organs in women.
Treatment of papillomas on the face and body
In most cases, skin growth does not cause discomfort and does not require treatment. Exceptions are formations that are permanently injured and represent cosmetic defects.
The HPV virus cannot be completely cured, but supportive therapy will prevent skin growth from occurring. Eating properly, exercising, doing wellness procedures, and giving up bad habits are beneficial for an infected person.
First of all, it is better to treat the papillomavirus with topical preparations.
If positive changes are not observed after taking the medication, the growths are surgically removed. However, without preliminary general strengthening therapy, such a procedure is ineffective because relapses can occur. First, treatment is needed to boost the body's immune defenses. The patient takes immunomodulators, a complex of vitamins, antiviral and cytotoxic drugs. In the case of concomitant diseases, the focus of inflammation should be healed.
If a cancerous tumor is suspected, it is necessary to surgically treat the pathology if the diameter of the papilloma exceeds 1 cm. The doctor will remove the debris along with a small amount of the surrounding tissue. Then cosmetic stitches are applied.
Alternative methods of treating papillomas on the face and body include:
- Cryodestruction- This is the effect on the neoplasm at low temperatures (-196 °). The procedure is painless and does not require the administration of anesthetic. After treatment with liquid nitrogen, the structure turns white and a bubble forms in its place. Gradually, pathological cells die. This method helps treat papillomas on the neck, eyelids, intimate areas, and other areas with sensitive skin.
- Electrocoagulation- This is the effect of high frequency currents on the affected area. A special ring is placed on a narrow leg or base of growth, due to which the tissue is cauterized. After that, the papilloma can be easily removed. There is no bleeding.
- Laser removalis the least traumatic treatment. The affected area is exposed to a jet of carbon dioxide, the fluid evaporates, the tissue dehydrates, dries out and turns into a dark crust that falls off after a week. When removing papillomas on the eyelids and face, it is necessary to avoid exposing the skin to ultraviolet rays, otherwise pigmentation may appear.
- Radiosurgical treatmentcarried out with a special device. The therapy method is similar to laser oxibustion, only in this case a radio knife is used. No scars remain after removal.
- Chemical destruction methodThis is done by applying organic acids to the surface of the papilloma, which destroy the structure of pathological cells.
Local anesthesia is used if the pain threshold is low or if the growth size is large. After the operation, the patient must follow the doctor's recommendations and conduct disinfectant treatment. The excised papilloma is sent for histological examination to rule out the presence of cancer cells.
Post-surgical relapses occur when the affected area has not been fully treated. In this case, the structure is displayed again.
Removal of genital warts
Before the procedure, a person must pass a biochemical blood test for the presence of antibodies to the HPV virus, smears for genitourinary infections, and a tissue biopsy. Based on the research, the doctor will choose the best treatment option.
Anogenital warts, like papillomas on the neck and face, are removed. These are cryodestruction, laser radiation, electrocoagulation, radio wave therapy, chemical destruction.
Treatment of papillomas in the genital area is recommended to all patients, as they can infect their partner with the virus. And growths in the vagina and cervical area in women require urgent removal as they can cause cancer.
Prevention of human HPV
The only way to prevent the papillomavirus is through vaccination. In some countries, such a measure is included in the list of mandatory vaccinations, in others the procedure is carried out at the request of the patient.
Vaccine injections are given in 3 stages with an interval of 1 month and six months after the first injection. Scientific studies have confirmed the effectiveness of this method, which allows you to get rid of the causes of the appearance of benign lesions on the skin.
Additional preventive measures include protected sexual intercourse, careful selection of a sexual partner, strengthening immunity, improving the body, using personal hygiene items and treating infectious diseases in a timely manner.
A dermatologist can answer the question of why papillomas grow and how they should be treated. The doctor conducts an examination, prescribes laboratory tests and selects the necessary regimen of therapy.