Papillomas on the body occur as a result of infection with the human papillomavirus. In adulthood, human papillomavirus (HPV) can be found in most people. It is in an inactive phase. Under the influence of predisposing factors, HPV is activated by skin damage and characteristic papillomatous growths appear. Many of them are not dangerous and are only a cosmetic defect. However, it is extremely important to determine why papillomas appear on the body and whether they are associated with an oncological process.
Certain HPV strains cause malignant tissue hyperplasia. Due to the risk of growth of oncological neoplasms, regardless of the cause of the appearance of papillomas on the body, treatment is carried out mainly using surgical methods. When skin growth occurs, the first thing to do is to consult a dermatologist. If neoplasia is found in the genital area, see a venereologist. A specialist can determine exactly what is causing papillomas on the body and mucous membranes, identify the strain of HPV, and determine the oncogenic risk.
Which papillomas can appear on the body?
Outwardly, the papilloma resembles a hot growth that extends beyond the upper layer of the skin. The neoplasm often has a thin stem. Papillomas on the body can be arranged individually or in groups. You look like a mushroom. Their color differs only slightly from healthy skin. Often papillomas on the body and in the photo are different. There are many images of neoplasms on the network that are worth examining in order to at least roughly understand whether or not to go to the doctor. In the photo you can see what papillomas look like on the body, and how - for example, moles or melanomas. But only a doctor can make an accurate diagnosis.
Common types of papillomas on the body:
- simple or vulgar - they look like rounded nodules that most often appear on the hands, are located in groups and are mainly discovered in childhood;
- flat or youthful - slightly raised papules have a smooth surface, appear on the skin of the limbs or mucous membranes;
- plantar - look like dense nodules, covered with a crust of keratin on top, can cause painful sensations when walking;
- thread-like - small flesh-colored outgrowths in a longitudinal shape, which appear more often on the skin of the neck and face in old age, can be damaged and inflamed during hygiene;
- Genital warts - This type of warts is the most dangerous as it is caused by strains of HPV with high oncogenic risk. Outwardly, neoplasms resemble a cluster of cauliflower, they appear in the perineum, on the genitals of men and women, and can affect the bladder and cervix.
Common causes of papillomas on the body
The main reason for the appearance of papillomas on the body is the entry of the papillomavirus through minor skin lesions or self-infection during shaving and daily hygiene.
The following factors can cause the growth of papillomatous neoplasms:
- promiscuous intimate life;
- acute and chronic urogenital infections, genital warts on the genitals and skin of the perineum;
- hormonal disorders;
- severe decrease in immunity;
- constant trauma to the skin and mucous membranes.
Most often, people with papillomas on their bodies have a chronic course of papillomatous infection. The virus goes unnoticed for a long time. After a decrease in immunity, HPV is activated. Serious infectious diseases, previous operations, radiation, working under unfavorable conditions, constant stress, intense physical and psycho-emotional stress as well as an inferior diet with a low content of vitamins and minerals can lead to a weakening of the immune system.
The causes of papillomas on the body in women are often associated with hormonal changes in the body during menopause or pregnancy. Fluctuations in the ratio of sex hormones create favorable conditions for the active reproduction of HPV and tissue hyperplasia. At risk are women with genital warts, which are mainly transmitted through close contact with a person who has genital warts.
Cervical cancer and papilloma on the body
The main danger of papillomas on the body is the risk of malignancy from neoplasms. In women, papillomatous outgrowths can cause a formidable disease - cervical cancer. 16 and 18 HPV types are responsible for this pathology. According to statistics, more than 500, 000 women of working age develop cervical cancer worldwide each year. Half of them seek medical help in the latter stages of the disease, when it can be quite difficult to help them fully recover. Every woman should know what the human papillomavirus is, how it gets into the human body, and how to protect herself from malignant cervical hyperplasia.
If papillomas appear on the body, a comprehensive diagnosis must be carried out in order to identify possible comorbidities of the urogenital. HPV can cause hyperplasia of the cervical lining. If a woman does not conduct preventive examinations for a long time, she will not learn about the presence of papillomas on the genitals and, possibly, overlook the growth of a malignant formation.
If papillomas are found on the body, the following tests are recommended:
- Typing of a virus using PCR diagnostics;
- in men, take swabs from the cervix and foreskin;
- immunological analysis;
- blood tests for sexually transmitted infections;
- biopsy, cytology and tissue histology.
An integrated approach to the investigation allows us to evaluate all the possible risks of the disease and understand how to treat papillomas on the body in order to completely eliminate neoplasms and prevent their recurrence in the future.
Important! HPV has virtually no symptoms. The neoplasm does not manifest itself for a long time. Small growths on the skin do not cause discomfort, but if they are injured they can become infected and become cancerous.
Ordinary papillomas on the body can also be dangerous if they are frequently injured and exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Such neoplasms must be removed in time to prevent tissue magnetization under the influence of age-related changes and unfavorable environmental factors.
How the papilloma virus spreads
The main route HPV spreads is through close relationships, including oral and anal contacts. Papillomavirus is often diagnosed against the background of acute and chronic sexually transmitted infections in people who have close relationships with different partners.
However, papillomavirus can enter the body through close household contacts, damaged skin and mucous membranes. Newborn babies can be infected from a mother who has genital warts, a form of infection with the human papillomavirus. The child becomes infected when it passes through a woman's birth canal. HPV affects the skin and mucous membranes, causing warts, papillomas, and genital warts to appear.
The strength of the immune system plays a big role in the development of HPV. The weaker the immune system, the higher a person's risk of contracting a human papillomavirus. Patients with diabetes mellitus, hormonal disorders, a weakened body, pregnant women and children and people with chronic urogenital infections are particularly at risk.
Principles of treatment of papillomas on the body
Drug therapy includes the appointment of antiviral drugs that suppress the active reproduction of HPV. However, such funds are often used as part of complex treatment before or after the minimally invasive removal of papillomas. Special antiviral drugs slow the reproduction of the papillomavirus and significantly reduce the risk of the disease recurring in the future.
The earlier the therapy is started, the lower the risk of tissue malignancy. The ideal time for treatment is the first few months after the appearance of neoplasms. The therapeutic course also includes the use of immunostimulatory agents that support the activity of the immune system and prevent frequent exacerbations of the disease. The recurring course of an infection with the human papillomavirus can be accompanied by the formation of papillomas not only on the body, but also on the genitals, in the urinary organs and on the oral mucosa. This course of the disease is typical for people who have undergone complex surgical interventions, prolonged infectious diseases and hormonal disorders.
Surgical removal of papillomas from the body
Surgical treatment for papillomas on the body is a classic option that works best for most patients. After examining and obtaining diagnostic data, the doctor will choose the appropriate method for removing the neoplasm.
Main indications for removing papillomas from the body:
- active growth of papillomatous outgrowths;
- the appearance of neoplasms in places where they are often damaged and inflamed;
- chronic course of infection with human papillomavirus, regular exacerbations;
- high oncogenic risk, history of predisposition to malignant neoplasms;
- the appearance of pain in the area of papillomas, changes in the color and shape of neoplasms.
Expectant tactics are practiced by specialists when papillomas appear during pregnancy and during breastfeeding. Often papillomatous growths go away on their own immediately after childbirth and the restoration of hormone levels in a woman.
Ways to remove papillomas from the body
Minimally invasive methods of removing papillomas on the body allow you to get rid of neoplasia almost bloodlessly in order to preserve most of the healthy skin. If there is no risk of tissue malignancy, the following surgical methods can be used:
- Radio wave therapy (removal of genital warts with a radio knife);
- cryodestruction (burning warts with liquid low-temperature nitrogen);
- laser coagulation (evaporation of pathological neoplasms with a laser);
- Electrocoagulation (application of high frequency current).
The classic surgical removal with a scalpel is used for large tissue lesions and severe papillomatosis. However, experts prefer minimally invasive treatment methods whenever possible. Most commonly, papillomas are removed from the body with a laser. This method is characterized by minimal damage, does not leave scars and spots on the skin. The laser has an anti-inflammatory effect that enables minimally invasive surgery with minimal risk of secondary infection.
It is also possible to use a radio wave device that removes neoplasia without contact under local anesthesia. Under the action of high-frequency radio waves, the structures of the neoplasm are destroyed and pathological tissues evaporate, their coagulation takes place - a kind of "seal" that prevents bleeding from the wound.
The treatment of papillomas with cryodestruction is widespread. The technique is based on the use of liquid nitrogen, which freezes all layers of the neoplasm, after which the papilloma disappears and, after a few months, only an imperceptible small spot appears in its place. Electrocoagulation is used to remove individual papillomas. Using a loop of an electrocoagulator, the doctor cuts off the leg of the papilloma, burns out its base, and seals the tissue to prevent bleeding.
Surgical methods of getting rid of genital warts and warts are only used in a medical facility. To prevent the recurrence of papillomas, antiviral therapy is prescribed. People with papillomas are also advised to see specialists regularly and have tests done. Women who have had papillomas removed, especially in the genital area, should have swabs and other laboratory tests 2-3 times a year.